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The above painting shows endocapillary hypercellularity with mononuclear cells and neutrophils, as well as hyaline deposits within glomeruli. Red blood cell casts are seen within focal tubular lumens, and the tubules are widely spaced due to interstitial edema and inflammation. These findings can be seen within acute proliferative glomerulonephritis. Other proliferative changes within glomeruli seen in acute proliferative glomerulonephritis include mesangial hypercellularity and crescent formation. The differential diagnosis for proliferative glomerulonephritis is broad and includes infection-associated glomerulonephritis including post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, focal or diffuse lupus nephritis, shunt nephritis, cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis, hepatitis-associated glomerulonephritis, and IgA nephropathy (or Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis). Other considerations...