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A 45 year-old African American man presented with pneumonia, colitis and acute kidney injury (serum creatinine- 6 mg/dL). What is the most likely diagnosis? A. Infection associated glomerulonephritis B. Ischemic glomerulopathy due to sepsis C. HIV-associated nephropathy D. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis E. Acute pyelonephritis Answer: C HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a characteristic renal disease developing in the setting of HIV infection. It is manifested clinically by nephrotic-range proteinuria (full nephrotic syndrome is uncommon), acute renal failure and microscopic hematuria and morphologically by collapsing glomerulopathy. Some APOL1 polymorphisms, which are more prevalent in African American, predispose to HIVAN. HIV-associated immune...