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These images are from the kidney biopsy of a 45-year-old man with a history of hypertension and bipolar disease presenting with renal failure. Serum creatinine is 3 mg/dl. Which of these elements has been associated with some of the findings in this biopsy? A. Potassium B. Lithium C. Sodium D. Antimony E. Gold Answer: B. Lithium The features seen in this biopsy are suggestive of lithium-induced nephropathy. This develops in patients taking lithium-containing medications for prolonged periods, usually 10-20 years, and can manifest decades after the medication has been stopped. It typically shows a chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy, usually out of...