arrow-right-realarrow-rightarrow-rightback-to-topdoctordownloadfacebookinstagramlogologo-wordmarkcasttwitter
Close Modal
0

Blog


VEGF Inhibitor

The patient is a 70-year-old white female who presents with 4 gm/24 hr proteinuria and a creatinine of 1.2 mg/dl. She has colon cancer with metastases to the liver, treated with chemotherapy and Avastin. The patient has recently had anemia, thrombocytopenia, ascites, and a urinary tract infection treated with nitrofurantoin. Her blood pressure has been under good control at 120/80. Figure 1 shows acellular closure of the capillary lumens and a "cotton-candy" appearance of the mesangium. Figures 2 and 3 shows capillary microaneurysms and segmental capillary hyalinosis. Figure 3 additionally shows double contours. Figure 4 shows moderate interstitial fibrosis. Figure...

Hemosiderosis

An 80-year-old white male presents with a creatinine of 4.2 (baseline 1.1) on routine lab examination. His medical history is significant for coronary artery disease, aortic valve replacement, hypertension, and peripheral artery disease. He reports no episodes of dehydration and reports that he has been in his normal state of health. Figure 1 shows a normal glomerulus. Figure 2 shows a mild interstitial fibrosis. Figure 3 shows brown spherules within the tubular epithelial cells. Figure 4 confirms the presence of iron within these brown spherules. This is a case of renal hemosiderosis. The presence of iron deposits speaks towards intravascular...

AL Amyloidosis

A 70 year-old female presents with nephrotic range proteinuria and a creatinine of 1.2. She was in her normal level of health until about 6 months ago when she noticed foamy urine and swelling in her ankles. She has lost 30 lbs unintentionally during the last few months. Her cardiologist said that her proteinuria does not appear to be related to the heart. A kidney biopsy is performed. The glomerulus in figure 1 is distorted and has a “washed-out” or pale appearance on PAS stain. A silver stain shows material which is non-argyrophilic (figure 2). A Congo red stain shows...

Lupus Nephritis (Class IV)

A 20-year-old female presents with hematuria, proteinuria, and a creatinine of 1.2 mg/dl. Serologies for ANA are positive. Complement levels are decreased. She states that auto-immune disease runs in her family, but is unsure about any specific diagnosis. Serologies for dsDNA, SSA, SSB, rheumatoid factor, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV are pending. Figure 1 shows mesangial and endocapillary hypercellularity with prominent "hyaline thrombi." Figure 2 shows no significant interstitial fibrosis. Figure 3 shows "wire loops" and no "spikes" and "holes." Figure 4, Figure 5, and Figure 6 shows mesangial and capillary staining with IgG, kappa, and lambda, respectively. Figure...

Renal Oxalosis

A 25-year-old female presents to the hospital with malaise and a creatinine of 3.5. She reports that she was in her normal state of health until about 2 weeks ago when she had the “flu.” The patient has minimal proteinuria and bland urine sediment. A kidney biopsy was obtained. Figure 1 shows a normal glomerulus. Figure 2 shows severe chronicity. Figure 3 and 4 show polyhedral clear crystals within the tubular lumina. Figure 5 shows an increased number of oxalate crystals under polarized light. Renal oxalosis is characterized by excess deposition of calcium oxalate crystals within the kidney. There are...

Minimal Change Disease

A 70-year-old female presents with nephrotic range proteinuria. She had been in her regular state of health until 2 weeks ago when she noticed swelling in her ankles and that her shoes no longer fit. She went to her family practitioner who sent her to a cardiologist to rule out congestive heart failure. Her troponin levels were normal and her creatinine on routine examination was 7.5 mg/dL. She was admitted to the hospital and an emergent kidney biopsy was requested. Figure 1 shows a normal glomerulus. Figure 2 shows no significant interstitial fibrosis. Figure 3 shows severe arteriosclerosis. Figure 4...

Infection-Associated Glomerulonephritis

A 60-year-old male presents with a painful left hip, hematuria, and a creatinine of 1.5 mg/dl. He was recently hospitalized due to fever and chills. It was found that his left hip implant was infected. Blood cultures grew out methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. After beginning treatment with antibiotics and planning for surgery, a nephrology consult was requested. A kidney biopsy was performed and serologies were ordered. Figure 1 shows segmental endocapillary hypercellularity. Figure 2 shows mild interstitial fibrosis. Figure 3 shows staining with C3 only. All other immunofluorescence stains were negative on the frozen tissue. Immunofluorescence was then performed on the...

IgA Dominant Infection-Associated Glomerulonephritis

A 65-year-old male presents to the ER with a new onset rash and blood in his urine. The ER doc is worried about an allergic reaction and on chem 7 finds that the patient’s creatinine is 6.5 mg/dl. The patient has been a diabetic for over 20 years and had been diagnosed with cellulitis of his left foot a week ago by a family practice physician who gave him antibiotics. A skin biopsy of the new onset rash during this hospitalization shows a leukocytoclastic vasculitis with IgA deposition. A kidney biopsy is requested. The kidney biopsy shows nodular diabetic glomerulosclerosis...

Pushing Glass (December 7, 2018)

The patient is a 50-year-old female who presents 2 days after a renal transplant with a delay in graft function and a creatinine of 7. Her end-stage renal disease was due to diabetic glomerulopathy. She was on dialysis for 3 years. She received a kidney from a 22-year-old deceased donor (motorcycle accident). The kidney at time of transplant looked normal grossly and microscopically. What is the most likely cause of the patient’s delay in graft function? A. Acute Cellular Rejection B. Surgical manipulation of a vessel C. Recurrent diabetes D. Donor-derived disease   The correct answer is (B) surgical manipulation...

Pushing Glass (September 7, 2017)

The patient is a 75-year-old female who presents with proteinuria and a creatinine of 2.50. She has chronic lymphocytic leukemia, hypertension, and multiple sclerosis. What is the best diagnosis? A. Type I Cryoglobulinemia B. Type II Cryoglobulinemia C. Hepatitis C associated MPGN D. C3 Glomerulonephritis   The best answer is A (type 1 cryoglobulinemia). The biopsy shows a membranoproliferative pattern with IgG lambda restriction. The presence of hyaline thrombi is concerning for cryoglobulinemia. Cryoglobulins are immunoglobulins that precipitate in the cold and dissolve on warming and induce disease via vascular injury and blockage. Three types of cryoglobulins are distinguished based...