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Archive: February 2019

Ehop Visit

ehop, arkana laboratories, arkana visualized
This week two of our favorite Ehop coaches were in town for a quick visit.  It's always a treat to spend time for them and be encouraged on our wellness journeys!    

Twitter Poll (February 27, 2019)

Endocapillary hypercellularity, arkana laboratories, twitter poll
Answer: B "Endocapillary hypercellularity" is the new term recommended to be used instead of "endocapillary proliferation". This is a more accurate term as an increase in cellularity can be the result of inflammatory influx and does not necessarily requires proliferation. Reference: Bajema IM, et al. Revision of the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society classification for lupus nephritis: clarification of definitions, and modified National Institutes of Health activity and chronicity indices. Kidney Int. 2018;93:789-796.    


renal hemosiderosis, arkana laboratories, teaching point, renal pathology
An 80-year-old white male presents with a creatinine of 4.2 (baseline 1.1) on routine lab examination. His medical history is significant for coronary artery disease, aortic valve replacement, hypertension, and peripheral artery disease. He reports no episodes of dehydration and reports that he has been in his normal state of health. Figure 1 shows a normal glomerulus. Figure 2 shows a mild interstitial fibrosis. Figure 3 shows brown spherules within the tubular epithelial cells. Figure 4 confirms the presence of iron within these brown spherules. This is a case of renal hemosiderosis. The presence of iron deposits speaks towards intravascular...

Diagnose This (February 25, 2019)

kappa light chain, diagnose this, arkana laboratories, renal pathology
What is your diagnosis?     ​ ​   ​   ​ ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​   ​ ​   ​ ​   ​ ​   ​ ​     ​   ​   ​ ​  ...

Twitter Poll (February 20, 2019)

Antibody-Mediated Rejection, Twitter Poll, Arkana Laboratories
ANSWER: B The findings are suspicious for active antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR), based on the presence of moderate glomerulitis (g2), severe peritubular capillaritis (ptc3) and C4d staining in PTCs (C4d2). Serologic evidence of DSA is advised in order to meet the criteria for diagnosis. Reference: Haas M, et al. The Banff 2017 Kidney Meeting Report: Revised diagnostic criteria for chronic active T-cell mediated rejection, antibody-mediated rejection, and prospects for integrative endpoints for next-generation clinical trials. Am J Transplant. 2018; 1-15.

AL Amyloidosis

AL-Type Amyloidosis, teaching point, arkana laboratories, renal pathology, kidney biopsy
A 70 year-old female presents with nephrotic range proteinuria and a creatinine of 1.2. She was in her normal level of health until about 6 months ago when she noticed foamy urine and swelling in her ankles. She has lost 30 lbs unintentionally during the last few months. Her cardiologist said that her proteinuria does not appear to be related to the heart. A kidney biopsy is performed. The glomerulus in figure 1 is distorted and has a “washed-out” or pale appearance on PAS stain. A silver stain shows material which is non-argyrophilic (figure 2). A Congo red stain shows...

Art of Medicine: Light Chain Proximal Tubulopathy

The painting above shows light chain proximal tubulopathy with crystals, which is one type of a monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS).  MGRS, as defined by the International Kidney and Monoclonal Gammopathy Research Group, is a “clonal proliferative disorder that produces a nephrotoxic monoclonal immunoglobulin” (Leung N et al, 2019), and indicates end-organ damage resulting from a monoclonal gammopathy.   The most common MGRS manifestations include AL amyloidosis, monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease, light chain cast nephropathy, and light chain proximal tubulopathy.   In light chain proximal tubulopathy, a nephrotoxic monoclonal light chain induces acute tubular injury or proximal tubular dysfunction.  Proximal tubular...

Digging Deeper, or How We Never Quit

Alport Syndrome, Digging Deeper, Arkana laboratories, renal pathology, kidney pathology, nephropathology
We received the biopsy from a 25-year-old female who presented for evaluation of nephrotic range proteinuria.  Lab evaluation reveals a creatinine of 0.55 and 24-hour urine protein is 3.6 g.  Serologies were negative or normal for ANA, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV, and complement levels.  There was no history of hypertension or diabetes. A biopsy was performed to evaluate the source of proteinuria. Two cores of renal tissue were sampled on light microscopy evaluation.  They consisted mostly of medulla, and only two glomeruli were seen in multiple sections. The glomeruli have capillary loops with attenuated contours. The capillary loops appeared...