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Archive: Pushing Glass

Pushing Glass (December 7, 2018)

The patient is a 50-year-old female who presents 2 days after a renal transplant with a delay in graft function and a creatinine of 7. Her end-stage renal disease was due to diabetic glomerulopathy. She was on dialysis for 3 years. She received a kidney from a 22-year-old deceased donor (motorcycle accident). The kidney at time of transplant looked normal grossly and microscopically. What is the most likely cause of the patient’s delay in graft function? A. Acute Cellular Rejection B. Surgical manipulation of a vessel C. Recurrent diabetes D. Donor-derived disease   The correct answer is (B) surgical manipulation...

Pushing Glass (September 7, 2017)

The patient is a 75-year-old female who presents with proteinuria and a creatinine of 2.50. She has chronic lymphocytic leukemia, hypertension, and multiple sclerosis. What is the best diagnosis? A. Type I Cryoglobulinemia B. Type II Cryoglobulinemia C. Hepatitis C associated MPGN D. C3 Glomerulonephritis   The best answer is A (type 1 cryoglobulinemia). The biopsy shows a membranoproliferative pattern with IgG lambda restriction. The presence of hyaline thrombi is concerning for cryoglobulinemia. Cryoglobulins are immunoglobulins that precipitate in the cold and dissolve on warming and induce disease via vascular injury and blockage. Three types of cryoglobulins are distinguished based...

Pushing Glass (June 22, 2018)

The patient is an 80 year-old male who presents with fatigue and a creatinine of 6.5 mg/dl. He was in his normal state of health until he and his grandchild went to the park on a hot afternoon. Subsequently, he began to feel ill and fatigued and went to see his physician. He has a past medical history significant for long-standing hypertension which is treated with a loop diuretic. Based on this history and images, what is the best diagnosis? A. Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia B. Light Chain Deposition Disease secondary to lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma C. Light Chain Deposition Disease secondary to small...

Pushing Glass (May 25, 2017)

The patient is a 74 year-old female who presents with a sudden rise in creatinine to 5.0. A week ago at her annual physical, her creatinine was 1.0. She presents to the hospital with dehydration and flu like symptoms. She has a history of hypertension and CLL which is followed by oncology. What is the best diagnosis? 1. Acute interstitial nephritis 2. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia 3. Large B-Cell Lymphoma arising from chronic lymphocytic leukemia 4. Acute tubular injury The best answer is (Answer 3) Large B-cell lymphoma arising from chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The biopsy shows a very brisk interstitial infiltrate...

Pushing Glass (May 11, 2018)

These images are from the kidney biopsy of a 45-year-old man with a history of hypertension and bipolar disease presenting with renal failure. Serum creatinine is 3 mg/dl. Which of these elements has been associated with some of the findings in this biopsy? A. Potassium B. Lithium      C. Sodium D. Antimony E. Gold Answer: B. Lithium The features seen in this biopsy are suggestive of lithium-induced nephropathy. This develops in patients taking lithium-containing medications for prolonged periods, usually 10-20 years, and can manifest decades after the medication has been stopped. It typically shows a chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy, usually out of...

Pushing Glass (April 6, 2018)

A 75-year-old Hispanic male presents with a creatinine of 3. His creatinine has slowly been creeping up over the last year from 1.8 to the current level. No hematuria or proteinuria is reported. Serologies for ANA, dsDNA, rheumatoid factor, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and ASO are negative. Complement levels are normal. SPEP and UPEP are within normal limits. What is the best diagnosis? A. Arterionephrosclerosis B. Amyloidosis, AL-Type C. Amyloidosis, AA-Type D. Amyloidosis, ALect2-Type   The best answer is D (Amyloidosis, ALect2-Type). From low power, the glomeruli have an ischemic appearance and the arteries have severe arteriosclerosis. However, the Congo...

Pushing Glass (March 23, 2018)

These images are from the kidney biopsy of a 70-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and valvular heart disease presenting with renal failure and serum creatinine of 4 mg/dl. The findings are suggestive of a mutation in which of the following genes: A. Podocin B. Glucocerebrosidase C. a-galactosidase A D. Nephrin E. Phospholipase C Answer: C The images highlight podocytes loaded with numerous myelinosomes. There are only a few causes that can cause such accumulation, most notably Fabry disease. However, rare secondary causes to be considered include drugs such as chloroquine and chloroquine-like drugs (e.g., Plaquenil), amiodarone, aminoglycoside antibiotics,...

Pushing Glass (March 13, 2018)

A 65-year-old male presents with mild proteinuria and a sudden increase in creatinine. He was recently diagnosed with widely metastatic gastric carcinoma and has received 4 rounds of chemotherapy. During treatment with chemotherapy, his creatinine increased to 3.5 and has remained at that level despite fluid resuscitation. A kidney biopsy is performed. What is the best diagnosis? A. Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis B. Metastatic Gastric Carcinoma C. Intravascular Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma D. Thrombotic Microangiopathy The best answer is C – Intravascular Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma This is a very difficult case due to the proliferative nature of the glomeruli. At first...

Pushing Glass (January 26, 2018)

An otherwise asymptomatic 65-year-old man presents for medical evaluation after 15 years of not seeing a physician. He was noted to have an abnormal D-dimer test and was referred for further evaluation to the emergency department where his serum creatinine was found to be 5 mg/dL. Urinalysis showed 2+ proteinuria and 3+ blood. A renal biopsy was ordered. The images are characteristic findings of which of the following: 1. Amyloidosis 2. Fibrillary Glomerulopathy 3. Monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease 4. Dense Deposit Disease 5. Lupus nephritis 6. Anti-brush border antibody disease Choice 3 - Monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (MIDD) is characterized...

Pushing Glass (January 12, 2018)

A 70-year-old female presents with 8 grams of proteinuria and a creatinine of 2.1. She relays that she has noticed a gradual increase in swelling over the last 6 months. She denies NSAID use and any new exposures. What is the best diagnosis? A. Cryoglobulinemia B. IgA Nephropathy C. Post-infectious Glomerulonephritis D. Thrombotic Microangiopathy The best answer is A – cryoglobulinemia. The photographs show a membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with numerous hyaline thrombi. The hyaline thrombi stain for IgM, IgA, kappa, and lambda. The best diagnosis is cryoglobulinemia. IgA nephropathy is a consideration, but IgA nephropathy typically has mesangial staining and usually...