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ANSWER: B A reduced nephron number is associated with low birth weight, preterm birth, reduced kidney mass and size, short stature, maternal hyperglycemia, maternal protein malnutrition, and gene polymorphism for PAX2 and RET. References: Luyckx VA, Brenner BM. The clinical importance of nephron mass. J Am Soc Nephrolo 2010;21:898-910 Hughson M, Farris AB III, Douglas-Denton R, et al. Glomerular number and size in autopsy kidneys: the relationship to birth weight. Kidney Int 2003;63:2113