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September 27, 2018

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Hall's stain, bile casts


Hall’s stain is used to confirm the presence of bile casts. This technique uses the oxidizing action of Fouchet’s reagent to convert the bile pigment (bilirubin) into an easily identifiable green color (biliverdin). Bile pigments appear green against a yellow background.

The color ranges from olive green to emerald green, depending upon the concentration of bilirubin.


Hall MJ. A staining reaction for bilirubin in sections of tissue. Amer J Clin Path, 1960; 34:313-316.

Luna LG. Manual of Histologic Staining Methods of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, N.Y., c. 1968, p.174.

van Slambrouck CM, et al. Bile cast nephropathy is a common pathologic finding for kidney injury associated with severe liver dysfunction. Kidney Int 2013; 84(1): 192-197.